Footnotes about the research behind Bachelor Girl

The True Stories that inspired Orphan #8:


The real people and true events that inspired Bachelor Girl

Helen Inherits

In January 1939, Helen Weyant’s mysterious inheritance was front page news in papers across the country. No one seemed to know—least of all Helen—why Col. Jacob Ruppert, millionaire beer brewer and owner of the New York Yankees, made an unemployed ex-actress his heiress. When the real Helen got the news of her inheritance, she was frightened and bewildered, saying she had no idea why Ruppert—“an old friend of my family” whom she had known since she was a child—left her a fortune.

That’s where my imagination took over. The story you read in Bachelor Girl is fiction inspired by fact, but the novel does not pretend to explain the mystery behind the real Helen’s inheritance. Instead, I made up a story that rubbed up against history, blurring the lines as I invented the circumstances that linked Helen and Ruppert.

The woman you meet in my novel, Helen Winthrope, is an imagined character, but I did draw on some facts about the real Helen that I gleaned from old newspapers and the archives of The New York Times. Here’s what’s true: Helen’s brother, Rex, really did work for the Yankees; Helen lived with her mother in an apartment on West 55th Street; she had been a chorus girl; she loved dogs; she wasn't interested in marriage; she often played hostess at Ruppert’s Hudson River estate; and she accompanied Ruppert to the docks when the expedition he sponsored set sail for Antarctica. Helen did inherit $300,000 outright and a third of Ruppert’s holdings, including the Yankees baseball team, but he did not really leave her Eagle’s Rest, which was sold for back taxes in 1945 and is now a home for children in need.

So, what’s made up? Pretty much everything else! I think of Bachelor Girl as fiction set in the past, where the headlines of the day sometimes show up in the newspapers the characters in the novel are reading. Why did Ruppert leave Helen a fortune? I don’t claim to know, but Bachelor Girl has a story to tell.

All the Single Ladies

Protagonists in historical fiction are often feisty women pushing back against the gender norms that constrain them in their time. Some readers might assume these characters reflect contemporary sensibilities imposed on the past, but the character you meet in my novel, Helen Winthrope, is actually part of a cultural movement that vigorously debated the life choices of single women. In the 1920s, many single women in America, especially in urban environments, defined their own place in society—not as flappers flouting convention, or debutants seeking a husband, or spinsters who failed to find one—but as independent women known as Bachelor Girls.

In New York City, thousands of working, single women roomed together in boarding houses, longing for a room of their own—a desire thwarted by the reluctance of the city’s landlords to rent to single women. The chaffing dish became a symbol of independence for Bachelor Girls because it enabled a woman to prepare her own meals even when her tiny apartment lacked a kitchen. Department stores advertised chaffing dishes for this very purpose, eager to market to women who made their own decisions about how to spend their money. In researching my novel, Betsy Israel’s book Bachelor Girl: The Secret History of Single Women in the 20th Century was an invaluable source, as was Kate Bolick’s Spinster. But more influential to me were archival newspapers that Helen Winthrope herself might have read, where the question of the Bachelor Girl was publicly debated in opinion essays and advice columns.

My favorite column was Helen Rowland’s “Reflections of a Bachelor Girl.” Ms. Rowland churned out a weekly collection of acerbic observations and pithy sayings that were widely syndicated—columns she then collected and published in books like the 1909 volume I have on my desk. I also have framed a well-known postcard by Lou Mayer from 1910 depicting the Bachelor Girl at leisure in her apartment surrounded by her own things.

In Bachelor Girl, Helen Winthrope is aware of her situation, and makes her choices, in the context of her own times. Women throughout American history have been demanding respect, agitating for their rights, and striving for social justice. Seeing Helen as a Bachelor Girl was as easy as preparing a fillet of flounder in a chaffing dish.

Black Manhattan

I get suspicious of characters in historical fiction who are inexplicably enlightened on social issues in ways that align them more with our time than their own. On the other hand, stories set in the past that don’t acknowledge the true diversity of American history seem to me narrow and irrelevant. Striking that balance was an important goal for me in writing Bachelor Girl. Clarence Weldon, a Black man who works as the custodian in Helen Winthrope’s building, is an important character throughout the novel. Inspired and informed by James Weldon Johnson’s classic 1930 book Black Manhattan, I imagined Clarence’s story as a single thread woven through the dynamic and complex historical fabric of New York City.

Clarence is a college-educated man who puts his career as a teacher on hold to serve in World War I as part of the 369th Regiment known as the Harlem Rattlers. He isn’t motivated by animosity towards Germany but by the argument advanced by W. E. B. Du Bois that fighting for democracy abroad would give African-Americans leverage to demand their rights at home. Returning from combat, Clarence finds his teaching ambitions thwarted when he takes over the custodial job after his father suffers a stroke. He has to explain to Helen the value of the custodian’s apartment, which houses his whole family, in a city where rents are notoriously higher for Blacks than for whites.

Charles Sidney Gilpin, star of the 1920 production of Emperor Jones

In Bachelor Girl, Helen and Albert both have to make an effort to become informed about the injustices facing their Black neighbors, but they do so within their historical moment. Albert takes a subscription to The Crisis, from which he learns about the terrorism of lynching, and witnesses the Silent Parade, the 1917 march down Fifth Avenue protesting violence against Blacks in America. Helen has long talks with Clarence, who gives her The House Behind the Cedars by Charles Chesnutt to read. Inspired by Eugene O’Neil’s success with The Emperor Jones, which starred the Black actor Charles Gilpin and was lauded by theater critics at the time, Helen stages a play with a mixed-race cast. Throughout the novel, Helen’s connection with Clarence and his family challenges—and eventually changes—our Bachelor Girl.

Col. Jacob Ruppert

Col. Jacob Ruppert was a fascinating man. Born in 1867, he raced horses at Belmont, showed dogs at Westminster, and housed a collection of monkeys at his Hudson River estate. He also served in Congress, brought a case to the Supreme Court, employed a Japanese valet, wore expensive tailored suits, collected jade vases and rare books, lived with his mother in their family’s mansion until she died, and never married. His funeral procession on January 16, 1939, attracted 15,000 people, clogging Fifth Avenue from 93rd Street to St. Patrick’s Cathedral. He is remembered in sporting history for bringing the winningest team and the biggest stadium and the greatest player to New York City—an accomplishment memorialized at the Baseball Hall of Fame. These historical facts—and many others—provided me with a wealth of amazing details upon which to base the character you meet in Bachelor Girl.

What does it mean to transform a real person into a fictional character? For me, it meant imagining a character whose motivations and desires synced up with certain historical events. For example, I know from newspaper articles that Ruppert’s sister Cornelia really did defy her parents to marry a divorced Jewish musician; after she died of appendicitis, her parents had her body stolen from the cemetery plot her husband had chosen. So that story is true, but how might such an episode shape Ruppert’s personality? Well, that’s the stuff of fiction.

Col. Ruppert's "Eagle's Nest" estate overlooking the Hudson River

Ruppert famously left a fortune to an unmarried ex-actress who had known him since she was a child—but how was he connected with her family, and why did he make her an heiress? I have no idea. Ruppert’s personal secretary of twenty years really was at his deathbed when he died, but I know nothing about that man or the nature of his relationship with his employer. Ruppert really did have a pocket door between his bedroom at Eagle's Rest and the one next to it—I know because I toured the estate—but the reason for the door, and who occupied the adjoining bedroom, were left for me to imagine. The man you meet in my novel is based on the real Col. Jacob Ruppert, but my imagination has transformed him into the enigmatic character who is at the heart of Bachelor Girl.

Gay New York

Helen Winthrope shares the narrative of Bachelor Girl with Albert Kramer, Col. Jacob Ruppert’s young and handsome personal secretary. When I first learned that Jacob Ruppert’s personal secretary of twenty years really was at his deathbed when he died, I wondered if there might have been more to their relationship. Instead of speculating about Ruppert’s sexuality, I imagined the character of his secretary, Albert Kramer, as a gay man who harbors his own notions about his unmarried employer.

My concept for Albert’s character is deeply influenced by George Chauncey’s groundbreaking book Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World 1890-1940. Not only was the gay world more widely known and recognized at the time than I expected, I was surprised to learn that the understanding of a man’s sexuality was based on the role he played in any relationship, rather than gender of his partner. Song’s like Irving Kaufman’s 1926 “Masculine Women, Feminine Men” and The Museum of the City of New York’s exhibit Gay Gotham showed me what a mecca New York was for queer people in the 1920s.

Including LGBTQ characters in historical fiction isn’t a modern imposition on the past. There have always been queer people, and there was a thriving gay world in Jazz Age New York that Albert could be part of. Newspapers at the time reported openly on the drag shows and “queer masquerades” that were a feature of Manhattan night life, novels such as Blair Niles’s 1931 Strange Brother featured gay characters, and Havelock Ellis’s 1919 volume Studies in the Psychology of Sex on “sexual inversion” offered readers a frank and comprehensive (if depressing) portrait of gay sexuality.

Throughout Bachelor Girl, Albert struggles to keep his worlds apart—the business relationship he has with Ruppert, the deepening friendship he feels for Helen, and the bohemian life he leads in Greenwich Village. But it’s when his worlds collide that Albert and Helen are both forced to confront the truth about themselves, and each other.

True Stories

From the family history that led me to museums and archives, to the research that sparked personal memories—these are the true stories that inspired me to write Orphan #8.

Motion to Purchase Wigs Approved

In July 2007, I was doing family research at the Center for Jewish History in New York City, sifting through some materials I’d requested from the American Jewish Historical Society archives. The idea of writing a historical novel was the furthest thing from my mind when I opened Box 54 of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum collection and began leafing through the meeting minutes of the Executive Committee.

The Orphaned Hebrews Home was inspired by the real Hebrew Orphan Asylum in Manhattan. Dedicated in 1884, it occupied two city blocks until it was demolished in the 1950s. It is now site of the Jacob Schiff Playground.

The minutes gave intimate glimpses into the day-to-day operations of an orphanage that, in the 1920s, was one of the largest child care institutions in the country, housing over 1,200 children in its massive building on Amsterdam Avenue. On October 9, 1921, the Committee authorized $200 (over 2000 in today’s dollars) to costume children for the “Pageant on Americanization.” The question of band instruments demanded much of the Executive Committee’s attention: in October 1922, the decision to change from high to low-pitched instruments was deferred; in April 1923, $3500 was approved to equip the band with low-pitched instruments; in January 1926, the theft of the new band instruments was referred to the Board. Syphilis was a concern, too, with the Committee instructing the Superintendent in January 1923 to work with the physician regarding syphilitic cases; by October 1926, nineteen cases of syphilis were diagnosed in the orphanage, fourteen of them in girls.

My description of the X-ray room at the Hebrew Infant Home was inspired by this 1919 photograph of the X-ray room at Vancouver General Hospital—where no medical research involving children was conducted.

But it was a motion made on May 16, 1920 that caught my eye and became the inspiration for Orphan #8. On that day, the Committee approved the purchase of wigs for eight children who had developed alopecia as a result of X-ray treatments given them at the Home for Hebrew Infants by Dr. Elsie Fox, a graduate of Cornell Medical School. Questions cascaded through my mind. Who was this woman administering X-rays? Why did the orphanage have an X-ray machine, and what were the children being treated for? What might have happened to one of these bald children after she had grown up in the orphanage? How would this have influenced the course of her life?

I remembered then a story my great-grandmother, Fannie Berger, used to tell about her time working as Reception House counselor in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. She’d been hired by the Superintendent in January 1918 when she went to the orphanage to commit her sons to the institution after her husband had absconded. One of Fannie’s jobs was to shave the heads of newly admitted children as a precaution against lice. It was a task she disliked, but refused only once.

Rachel's dormitory in the Orphaned Hebrews Home was inspired by this photograph of a dormitory in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

We used to drive out to Brooklyn when I was little, my mom and dad and brother and me, to visit my Grandma Fannie. We’d often find her on a bench outside her building, chatting with other old ladies. Up in her tiny apartment we’d perch uncomfortably on the day bed while we visited—I can’t imagine, now, a child with the patience for such an afternoon. I remember Fannie telling a story about the time a girl with beautiful hair was committed to the orphanage. It may be my imagination rather than my memory that makes this particular head of hair so remarkably red. Fannie was so taken with this girl’s hair that she refused to shave it off, took her request all the way up to the Superintendent who finally gave permission. In my Grandma Fannie’s telling, it was a singular moment of bravery, her refusal to shave this one girl’s head of hair.

The Hebrew Orphan Asylum baseball team. My grandfather, Victor, is seated in front of his brother Seymour, the team's “pillar of strength.”

At the Center for Jewish History, reading about the children who had been given X-ray treatments, I wondered what if, at the same time these bald children were in my great-grandmother’s care, this other girl came into Reception, the girl with hair so magnificent Fannie would challenge authority to preserve it? I imagined the contrast between these two girls escalating into a rivalry, the hair itself becoming their battleground. That was the moment Rachel and Amelia were created, and with their inception the idea of a novel began to emerge.

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Contractor of Waists

There is some mystery to the disappearance of my great-grandfather, Harry Berger, a contractor in the shirtwaist industry who’d been born in Russia in 1884 and arrived in New York in 1890. On the admission form to the orphanage, it is remarked that “Father is tubercular and is at present in Colorado with his brother,” which gives the impression that illness and the inability to work were behind Harry’s decision to leave his wife and three young sons. But the story I remember hearing is that Harry had gotten a young Italian woman who worked for him pregnant; when her family threatened to kick her out, Harry asked his wife if the girl could live with them. Fannie refused, but she hadn’t been prepared for Harry to up and leave. Decades later, suffering from dementia, Fannie relived the day he left, pleading from her nursing home bed to the ghost of her husband: “Don’t leave, Harry. Think of the boys. Put back the suitcase, we’ll get through this.”

I imagined Rabinowtiz Dry Goods to look much like Isaacs Hardware Store in Leadville, Colorado.

They didn't get through it. Harry ran off to Leadville, Colorado. Fannie couldn't go home to her parents because she’d defied her father in marrying Harry—unlike Fannie’s obedient sister, who’d been married off by their father to a rich uncle. After Harry left, Fannie sold her household effects for a total of $60. She might have turned, in desperation, to prostitution—many abandoned mothers occasionally did—or tried to eke out an existence on charity. Instead, she went to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, like thousands of parents before her, who, for reasons of death or desertion or illness, were unable to care for their children.

The Hebrew Infant Home, where Dr. Solomon conducted her research, was inspired by the Hebrew Infant Asylum. This picture shows the glassed-in babies in the isolation ward.

Like many inmates of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, my grandfather Victor and his brothers, Charles and Seymour, were not really orphans, and certainly not up for adoption. What was unusual was that their mother ended up living at the institution to which she had committed them. In 1918, the orphanage was experiencing a serious shortage of help. With so many men in the military, women had greater employment opportunities, making jobs at the orphanage—with its low wages, long hours and residence requirement—a hard sell. While Fannie always said it was a miracle that the Superintendent offered her a position on the very day her sons were admitted to the institution, it’s also true that her poverty and desperation to be near her children made her an ideal candidate.

Fannie and Victor Berger at the Hebrew Orphan Assylum.

When Fannie started working at the orphanage as a domestic in the Reception House, Charles was only three years old—too young for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. He was sent to the Hebrew Infant Asylum, where he soon contracted measles. When Fannie went to visit him, she wasn’t allowed into the ward and could only stand in the hallway listening to his cries. When Charles recovered, Fannie threatened to quit unless her son was allowed to live with her in the Reception House. After Charles was old enough to join his brothers in the main building, Fannie was promoted to Counselor and her duties included helping to process new admissions. Every child committed to the orphanage spent weeks quarantined in Reception. Besides having their heads shaved, they were evaluated by a doctor for physical and mental condition, tested for diphtheria, vaccinated, and given an eye test and a dental exam and surgery to remove the tonsils and adenoids. My great-grandmother Fannie often let the traumatized children cry themselves to sleep at night in her arms.

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Ever Efficient Boy of the Home

Still from a video of Hy and me in 2001 talking about his time at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum at its former site in Manhattan.

Even before my discoveries at the Center for Jewish History, I’d wanted to learn all I could about the institution where my grandfather Victor had grown up—an institution so large it was its own census district. I’d read The Luckiest Orphans, the most complete history of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum ever written, and was so appreciative of the insight it gave me into my grandfather’s childhood that I wrote the author, Hyman Bogan, a letter of thanks. Apparently, he wasn’t used to getting fan mail. I was amazed when I answered my phone one evening in 2001 to hear a strange man’s voice say, “Is this Kim? You wrote to me about my buh-buh-buh-book.” Hy later told me his stutter had began after being slapped on his first day in the orphanage.

I asked if I might meet him in New York for an interview and he was delighted at the prospect. Together we toured Jacob Schiff Playground, the public park on Amsterdam Avenue where the massive orphanage once stood. Much of my fictional depiction of life in the Orphaned Hebrews Home was inspired by Hy’s words and memories. Thanks to him, I was able to imagine Rachel’s life in an orphanage, from clubs and dances to loneliness and bullying.

The dining room in the Orphaned Hebrews Home, where the Purim Dance was held, was inspired by this photograph of the dining room at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

My research suggests that my grandfather Victor flourished at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. By the time he was a high school senior, he was a salaried captain—a position just below counselor—as well as vice-president of the Boys’ Council, a member of the Masquerade Committee, secretary of the Blue Serpent Society, and a member of the varsity basketball team. He was “the hustling young business manager” for The Rising Bell, the orphanage’s monthly magazine. Upon his graduation from DeWitt Clinton School, Vic was praised for his “stick-to-it-iveness” and “pleasant personality.” A “brilliant future in the outside world” was predicted for this “ever-efficient boy of the Home.” Though he rarely spoke of his childhood in the orphanage, he did express his gratitude for the institution in which he lived from age 6 to 17.

This picture shows patients suffering from tuberculosis being treated with heliotherapy at the Jewish Consumptives’ Relief Society, the inspiration for the Hospital for Consumptive Hebrews.

But I knew there was another side to Victor’s childhood memories. In 1987, my dad had gone missing; for two months, we’d had no inkling of his whereabouts. When Victor said, “I want to talk to you about your father,” I was expecting the same optimistic platitudes I’d been hearing for weeks: that everything would turn out fine, how brave I was, how strong. I couldn’t have been more mistaken. “Your father left you. You just forget about him from now on.” I knew Victor’s attitude was misplaced—if we were sure of anything, it was that my dad hadn’t run away to start a new life somewhere else—but my grandfather had gotten my attention. “My father left us, too, when me and my brothers, your uncles Seymour and Charles, were just little boys.’ I understood now. Victor was offering me advice, one orphan to another, on how a child gets through life without a father: just forget about him.

“We got a letter from my father once, did you know that?” This was news to me. I’d always assumed my great-grandfather had vanished, whereabouts unknown. Until I started researching my family history, I didn’t even know his name. “When your Grandma Fannie worked at the Reception House in the orphanage, we used to visit her on Sundays, me and my brothers. One time, she read us this letter she’d gotten, from California, that our father was sick and would we send money for his treatment. She asked us boys what should she do. We told her not to send him a dime. A few months later she got another letter saying that he died, and would we send money for a headstone. Me and my brothers, we said no. He left us, like your dad left you. We didn’t owe him a thing, and neither do you. Remember that.”

What amazed me more than the revelation of the letters was Victor’s anger. It radiated off him, like heat rising over asphalt. Seventy years had elapsed and still he was mad at his father for making him an orphan. In April, the melting snows would expose my father’s body, revealing that I was the daughter of a suicide, the outcome I’d suspected all along. Surely, that was different from the way Harry Berger had left his family? But however they left us, Victor and I were both children abandoned by their fathers.

Instead of following my grandfather’s advice to forget, however, I became intensely curious to know more. I began researching my family history, learning all I could about Harry Berger, the man who left his wife to commit their sons to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. Eventually, that research led to the discoveries that inspired me to write Orphan #8.

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Conditions Among Animals

The question that remained was about the woman who had conducted the X-ray treatments that left the children bald. Doctor Mildred Solomon is a completely imaginary character, unlike her counterpart in the novel, Dr. Hess. He was inspired by the real Dr. Alfred Fabian Hess, who was attending physician to the Hebrew Infant Asylum during the years in which my novel is set, and where he conducted research into childhood nutritional diseases, including rickets and scurvy. His infant isolation ward was lauded in a 1914 article in the New York Times which stated that “the great advantage of the glass walls” was that “neither nurse nor doctor need pay many visits to the children under their care.”

An X-ray of a 14-month-old baby with scurvy and an enlarged heart, from “Scurvy: Past and Present” by Dr. Alfred Hess (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1920).

In the novel, my character’s dialog is inspired by the real Dr. Hess’s own writing; in fact, the long passage Rachel reads in the medical library is a direct quote. And yes, he was married to the daughter of Isidor and Ida Strauss who went down on the Titanic.

The real Dr. Hess was often assisted by Miss Mildred Fish, coauthor on some of his nutrition studies and my inspiration, along with Dr. Elsie Fox, for Dr. Solomon. My research took me to the New York Academy of Medicine where I began to understand my character of Mildred Solomon more fully—the struggles she would have gone through, the pressures she was under, the goals to which she aspired. Dr. Solomon’s confrontation with Rachel gives the elderly woman a chance to defend her life’s work and her actions.

A ward at the Hebrew Infant Asylum circa 1908.

In the early twentieth century, the medical field was becoming more scientific and research became increasingly privileged. Amazing discoveries seemed to justify whatever methods were necessary to achieve the miraculous vaccinations and treatments that conquered disease and relegated conditions such as rickets and scurvy to the pages of American history. Today, the ethics of many such experiments have been condemned: the testing of polio vaccine on children in an orphanage; the study of untreated syphilis in prisoners; the sterilization of people who are impoverished or intellectually disabled. Sadly, disenfranchised people have often been “material” for medical experimentation.

It seems impossible now, however, to look back on experiments like those conducted by Dr. Fox and Dr. Hess and not see them through the distorting lens of the Holocaust. When telling people what Orphan #8 is about, I have learned that saying the words “Jewish children” and “medical experiments” in the same sentence is almost guaranteed to elicit a remark about Nazis. It seemed inevitable that Rachel herself, looking back on her childhood, would draw the same comparison, and only fair to allow Dr. Solomon to defend herself from these charges.

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A Wall They Cannot See

Postcard by Photobelle W.I.

Joan Nestle, co-founder of the Lesbian Herstory Archives, came to Milwaukee, while I was in graduate school there, to give a lecture. She read to us from a letter given to the archives by a woman who had endured the humiliation and fear of a police raid on a lesbian club in the 1950s. When I imagined Rachel and Naomi’s relationship, at first I thought no further than their romantic reunion at the carousel. But as I developed the novel, I realized how important it would be to explore the ways in which the characters would have responded to the repressive era in which they lived. As a lesbian writing at the time explained, “Between you and other women friends is a wall which they cannot see, but which is terribly apparent to you. The inability to present an honest face to those you know eventually develops a certain deviousness which is injurious to whatever basic character you may possess. Always pretending to be something you are not, moral laws lose their significance.”

In the 1950s, psychiatry in America purported that homosexuality was a psychological disorder that could be cured through analysis and therapy. The prevailing scientific view, as expressed by Dr. Frank Caprio in Female Homosexuality: A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism (New York: Citadel Press, 1954) was that homosexuality resulted from “a deep-seated and unresolved neurosis.” Caprio explained, “Many lesbians claim that they are happy and experience no conflict about their homosexuality, simply because they have accepted the fact that they are lesbians and will continue to live a lesbian type of existence. But this is only a surface or pseudohappiness. Basically, they are lonely and unhappy and are afraid to admit it, deluding themselves into believing that they are free of all mental conflicts and are well adjusted to their homosexuality.”

The carousel at Coney Island amusement park in the 1950s. Jewish woodcarvers crafted many such horses.

As adults, Rachel and Naomi would have lived with the dual experience of their relationship being both invisible (as female spinster roommates) and dangerous. Lesbian teachers and nurses in particular were fearful of losing their jobs and reputations. Living in the Village would have helped to ease their sense of isolation. As Caprio helpfully notes, “The Greenwich Village section of New York City has for many years been known as a center where lesbians and male homosexuals tend to congregate, particularly those with artistic talent.” But when Naomi’s Uncle Jacob offers them his apartment rent-free, the move out to Coney Island exacerbates their sense of isolation.

The Coney Island Amateur Psychoanalytic Society would have been one group where homosexuality was not condemned. Sigmund Freud’s 1909 visit to Dreamland, Luna Park and Steeplechase Park led him to confide to his diary that the “lower classes on Coney Island are not as sexually repressed as the cultural classes.” Freud’s visit to Coney Island was the inspiration for the 1926 formation of the Amateur Psychoanalytic Society, which met monthly and hosted an annual Dream Film award night—home movies which dramatized significant dreams and presented the dreamer’s accompanying analysis. One of them, “My Dream of Dental Irritation” by Robert Troutman, openly explores a gay theme. According to Zoe Beloff, editor of The Coney Island Amateur Psychoanalytic Society and Its Circle (New York: Christine Burgin, 2009), “Troutman says he was drawn to the Coney Island Amateur Psychoanalytic Society as a teenager struggling to come to terms with his homosexuality.”

As adults, Rachel and Naomi would have lived and worked in a society that denigrated and maligned their sexuality. In the orphanage, however, the atmosphere may have been more permissive. One man, recalling his years at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in response to a survey, matter-of-factly observed, “As far as homosexuality was concerned, I think there was plenty of it going around. In my own case, I jerked off quite a few fellows, and they did likewise to me.” For girls, intense crushes—including love notes, jealous intrigues, and displays of affection—were common, though these relationships were widely understood as immature substitutes for the heterosexual attractions that were expected to eventually replace them. Unless, of course, the girls bravely chose to live “a lesbian type of existence.”

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